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That being said, the text was clearly influenced by the Atenist concept of a universal god. Text and images from the Book of Gates appear in a number of New Kingdom tombs. Horemheb and Ramesses I had incomplete version in their sarcophagus chambers replacing the usual passages from the Amduat.

The Book of Gates

Seti I decorated his pillared halls with the Book of Gates, and had the first complete version inscribed on his sarcophagus, but also reinstated excerpts from the Amduat. Thereafter portions of the Book of Gates were inscribed in the upper pillared halls, sarcophagus chambers and subsidiary rooms of the pharaohs. Merenptah also included a complete copy on the walls of the cenotaph for Seti I at Abydos. Ramesses VI included a complete copy of the Book of Gates in his upper corridors, but chose to have the Book of the Earth in his sarcophagus chamber.

The Egyptian Book of the Dead: A guidebook for the underworld - Tejal Gala

However, Ramesses VII, only included the first two hours of the book and was the last pharaoh to include the Book of Gates in his tomb. The Book of Gates also appeared in the tombs of a select few nobles and prominent officials, such as Sennedjem a worker from Deir el-Medina, the workers village beside the Valley of the Kings and Tjanefer a priest of Amun.

The Egyptian Amduat – The Book of the Hidden Chamber – The Living Human Heritage Project

After the New Kingdom , sections of the book of Gates were occasionally merged with the Book of the Dead in the tombs of commoners and nobles. In particular, the first hour and the judgment hall remained in use in non-royal burials. Not all of the texts are complete or in the correct order.

The version in the tomb of Seti I has the hours in a continuous sequence ending with the last hour being placed by the head of the deceased king, but in other cases the hours are split up in different chambers.

The Major Egyptian Books of the Underworld

There were a total of one hundred scenes. Many of the early scenes are very large, but the last two hours contain a number of smaller scenes. The text is Middle Egyptian and displays little evidence of the influence of Late Egyptian, but does have a particularly wide and rich vocabulary. This site uses functional cookies and external scripts to improve your experience.

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Your choices will not impact your visit. NOTE: These settings will only apply to the browser and device you are currently using. It is available as an ebook print book. The written materials on hell that survive from the Egyptian period c. They include descriptions of what the dead might find and various spells to be used throughout the journey. What we now regard as texts, however, are various elements gathered together through the circumstances of their inscription and discovery. These were very popular works throughout this long history and are the largest body of surviving Egyptian texts.

These are known as the Pyramid Texts and comprise rituals and spells inscribed on the subterranean walls and sarcophagi from nine Old Kingdom royal tombs. These are often reworkings and expansions of the spells found among the Pyramid texts. There are over manuscripts and spells, which bedevil any organization. During this period the belief in a Judgment of the Dead and in the possibility of an afterlife for those outside the royal family became widespread.

It derives from inscriptions discovered in Barsha Bersheh, Middle Egypt on 22 non-royal coffins probably prepared for high officials and their wives.

But these distinctions are problematic, since some texts originally used by royalty had more general usage in later periods. Although the Book of Two Ways does not describe hell specifically, it does describe the seven demons who are the gate keepers of the netherworld: the one who stretches out the prow-rope; the one who cuts them down; the one who eats the excrement of his rear; the opposed-face, noisy; the upside-down-face, numerous-of-forms; the one-who-lives-on-worms; and Ikenty.

Their names and the brief description of their mission reveals the dangers that the dead face when they travel through these gates. These texts often survive on papyrus, although papyrus texts are found in all periods. The necropolis of Thebes modern Luxor yielded many of the best examples of these texts. Two registers of this book address the fate of the damned in the region of the dead.