The National Nutrition Survey in Germany in showed that the majority of recorded dietary fat is caused by the consumption of meat and sausage [ 22 ]. Moreover, the weight reduction diet patients significantly more often planned their meals in advance for the following week. The planning of meals can be understood as a kind of cognitive control of eating habits [ 5 ] and proved in literature as an effective strategy for long-term successful weight loss [ 23 ].
One possible explanation for the fact that the fasting patients changed their nutrition less frequent compared to the weight reduction diet patients and adhered seldom to learned nutritional aspects and to a lower-fat diet may be found by analysis of therapeutic approaches.
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While the weight reduction diet patients used the learned theoretical nutritional aspects practically during the whole inpatient therapy, the fasting patients collected after the passive state of food abstinence only few and short practical experience days of the possible modifications to their diet. With regard to this possible explanation, a review that compares different approaches to the treatment of obesity shows that participants of study arms in 28 included studies that exclusively obtained a theoretical guidance for diet had similar results of long-term weight reduction as the fasting patients in the present study.
A long-term weight loss over several years could not be reached by theoretical instruction [ 24 ]. The assumed potential of fasting therapy for long-term changes in diet [ 25 ] was not confirmed by the present study. The fasting therapy carried out as part of the inpatient naturopathic complex treatment in this patient population proved to be less suitable compared to standard therapy for the treatment of overweight and obesity. Both the fasting and the weight reduction diet patients who increased their sports activity permanently showed no greater weight loss than those participants who did not or only for a short period increase their sports activity.
A possible explanation is the lower energy costs for the sports activities compared to the increase in base and leisure activity. The sports activities were increased only for 2. However, this author showed also that a regular increase of the daily everyday life and leisure activity leads to a significantly higher energy expenditure and plays thus a crucial role in the regulation of overweight and obesity [ 26 ]. Therefore, the significant increase of base and leisure activity in weight reduction diet patients compared to fasting patients is another possible explanation for the successful long-term weight loss of weight reduction diet patients.
This period lasted for With respect to the 2. Thus even a relatively small reduction in weight may influence considerably the quality of life. Fasting patients benefited less than weight reduction diet patients in terms of long-term weight loss as well as in terms of weight-related quality of life.
Fasting therapy in the context of inpatient naturopathic complex treatment is less suitable for the treatment of overweight and obesity than low-calorie diet. Fasting therapy followed by long-term supervised weight reduction diet and fasting therapy for the prevention of obesity remains to be evaluated in the future. The Supplementary Material shows the original questionnaire along with an English translation. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
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Abstract In a follow-up study overweight and obese patients fasting according to Buchinger modified and a control group treated by a weight reduction diet in the context of an inpatient naturopathic complex treatment were compared using a questionnaire developed for a standardized phone interview 6. Introduction Multiple comorbidities are associated with overweight and obesity: cardiovascular diseases [ 1 , 2 ], type II diabetes mellitus [ 3 ], and malignancies [ 4 ].
Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a single center comparative retrospective follow-up study. Table 1 Reasons for exclusion from the phone interview. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 2 Demographic and biometric characteristics of the study patients. Results The fasting patients reduced their body weight from Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.
Figure 6. Figure 7. Conclusions Fasting therapy in the context of inpatient naturopathic complex treatment is less suitable for the treatment of overweight and obesity than low-calorie diet. Supplementary Material The Supplementary Material shows the original questionnaire along with an English translation. Click here to view. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. References 1.
American Heart Association call to action: obesity as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Intentional weight loss and mortality among overweight individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U. The New England Journal of Medicine. Ellrott T, Pudel V. Aktuelle Perspektiven. Stuttgart, Germany: Georg Thieme; Aktuel Ernahrungsmed. Incorporation of fasting therapy in an integrative medicine ward: evaluation of outcome, safety, and effects on lifestyle adherence in a large prospective cohort study.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Fahrner H. Fasten als Therapie. Stuttgart, Germany: Hippokrates; Leitlinien zur Fastentherapie. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. Johnstone AM. Fasting—the ultimate diet? Obesity Reviews. Pharmakologische bewertung von adipositas-therapeutika: kaum forschung zum heilfasten.
Short-term therapeutic fasting in the treatment of chronic pain and fatigue syndromes-well-being and side effects with and without mineral supplements. Schmidt JM, Ostermayer B. Anemueller H. Bortz J. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer; Weight gained in two years by a population of mid-aged women: how much is too much?
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International Journal of Obesity. Glucose homeostasis predicts weight gain: prospective and clinical evidence. Weight regain prevention. Clinical Diabetes. Max Rubner-Institut.
Nationale Verzehrsstudie II. Ergebnisbericht Teil 2. Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Dieter B.
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